Blog page 326

The Mars Generation

The Mars Generation is an American internationally active, non-governmental nonprofit organization involved in public outreach and advocating for human space exploration and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. The mission ...

Mutual shaping

Mutual shaping suggests that society and technology are not mutually exclusive to one another and, instead, influence and shape each other. This process is a combination of social determinism and technological determinism. The term mutual shaping ...

New media

New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are computer animations, computer games, human-computer interfaces, interactive computer installations, websites, and virtual ...

Normal science

Normal science, identified and elaborated on by Thomas Samuel Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is the regular work of scientists theorizing, observing, and experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework. Regardin ...

Normalization process theory

Normalization process theory is a sociological theory in the field of science and technology studies. The theory deals with the adoption of technological and organizational innovations, originally in the healthcare system. It was developed out of ...

Performativity

Performativity is a concept that can be thought of as a language which functions as a form of social action and has the effect of change. The concept has multiple applications in diverse fields such as anthropology, social and cultural geography, ...

Philosophy of technology

The philosophy of technology is a sub-field of philosophy that studies the nature of technology and its social effects. Philosophical discussion of questions relating to technology or its Greek ancestor techne dates back to the very dawn of Weste ...

Political Economy of Research and Innovation

The Political Economy of Research and Innovation is an emerging academic field at the interface of science and technology studies and political economy. It focuses on the production, distribution, and consumption of knowledge, and how these shape ...

Post-normal science

Post-normal science represents a novel approach for the use of science on issues where "facts uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent". PNS was developed in the 1990s by Silvio Funtowicz and Jerome R. Ravetz. It can be cons ...

Postnormal times

Postnormal times is a concept developed by Ziauddin Sardar as a development of Post-normal Science. Sardar describes the present as "postnormal times", "in an in-between period where old orthodoxies are dying, new ones have yet to be born, and ve ...

Private-collective model of innovation

The term private-collective model of innovation was coined by Eric von Hippel and Georg von Krogh in their 2003 publication in Organization Science. This innovation model represents a combination of the private investment model and the collective ...

Privileged positions of business and science

The privileged positions of business and science refer to the unique authority that persons in these areas hold in economic, political, and technosocial affairs. Businesses have strong decision-making abilities in the function of society, essenti ...

Rachel Carson Prize (academic book prize)

The Rachel Carson Prize is awarded annually by the Society for Social Studies of Science, an international academic association based in the United States. It is given for a book "of social or political relevance" in the field of science and tech ...

Reverse salient

A reverse salient refers to a component of a technological system that, due to its insufficient development, prevents the system in its entirety from achieving its development goals. The term was coined by Thomas P. Hughes, in his work Networks o ...

Technological revolution

A technological revolution is a period in which one or more technologies is replaced by another technology in a short amount of time. It is an era of accelerated technological progress characterized by new innovations whose rapid application and ...

Social construction of technology

Social construction of technology is a theory within the field of science and technology studies. Advocates of SCOT - that is, social constructivists - argue that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes te ...

Social shaping of technology

According to Robin A. Williams and David Edge, "Central to social shaping of technology is the concept that there are choices inherent in both the design of individual artifacts and systems, and in the direction or trajectory of innovation progra ...

Social studies of finance

Social studies of finance is an interdisciplinary research area that combines perspectives from anthropology, economic sociology, science and technology studies, international political economy, behavioral finance, cultural studies and/or economi ...

Socio-scientific issues

Socioscientific Issues are controversial social issues which relate to science. They are ill-structured, open-ended problems which have multiple solutions. SSI are utilized in science education in order to promote scientific literacy, which empha ...

Sociotechnology

Sociotechnology is the study of processes on the intersection of society and technology. Vojinovic and Abbott define it as "the study of processes in which the social and the technical are indivisibly combined". Sociotechnology is an important pa ...

Software studies

The implementation and use of software has been studied in recent fields such as cyberculture, Internet studies, new media studies, and digital culture, yet prior to software studies, software was rarely ever addressed as a distinct object of stu ...

Sokal affair

The Sokal affair, also called the Sokal hoax, was a scholarly publishing sting perpetrated by Alan Sokal, a physics professor at New York University and University College London. In 1996, Sokal submitted an article to Social Text, an academic jo ...

STEPS Centre

The STEPS Centre is an interdisciplinary global research and policy engagement hub at the University of Sussex. It is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. The Centre brings together development studies with science and technology s ...

Strong programme

The strong programme or strong sociology is a variety of the sociology of scientific knowledge particularly associated with David Bloor, Barry Barnes, Harry Collins, Donald A. MacKenzie, and John Henry. The strong programmes influence on Science ...

Science studies

Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts. It uses various methods to analyze the production, representation and reception of scientifi ...

Sussex Manifesto

In the late 1960s the United Nations asked for recommendations on science and technology for development from a team of academics at the Institute of Development Studies IDS and SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research formerly called Science ...

Techno-progressivism

Techno-progressivism or tech-progressivism is a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change. Techno-progressives argue that technological developments can be profoundly empowering and emancipatory when t ...

Technological convergence

Technological convergence is a theory which refers to the tendency for technologies that were originally unrelated to become more closely integrated and even unified as they develop and advance. The concept is roughly analogous to convergent evol ...

Technological determinism

Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that assumes that a societys technology determines the development of its social structure and cultural values. The term is believed to have originated from Thorstein Veblen, an American sociolog ...

Technological somnambulism

Technological somnambulism is a concept used when talking about the philosophy of technology. The term was used by Langdon Winner in his essay Technology as forms of life. Winner puts forth the idea that we are simply in a state of sleepwalking i ...

Technological transitions

Technological innovations have occurred throughout history and rapidly increased over the modern age. New technologies are developed and co-exist with the old before supplanting them. Transport offers several examples; from sailing to steam ships ...

Technology acceptance model

The technology acceptance model is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The actual system use is the end-point where we want everyone to be able to do with technology, so we have to form Behavio ...

Technology adoption life cycle

The technology adoption lifecycle is a sociological model that describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups. The process of adoption ...

Technology life cycle

The technology life-cycle describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life". Some technologies, such as steel, paper or cement manufacturing, have a ...

Technology trajectory

Technology trajectory refers to a single branch in the evolution of a technological design of a product/service, with nodes representing separate designs. Movement along the technology trajectory is associated with research and development. Due t ...

Technoscience

In common usage, technoscience refers to the entire long-standing global human activity of technology combined with the relatively recent scientific method that occurred primarily in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Technoscience is the ...

Theories of technology

Theories of technology attempt to explain the factors that shape technological innovation as well as the impact of technology on society and culture. Most contemporary theories of technology reject two previous views: the linear model of technolo ...

Trading zones

The metaphor of a trading zone is being applied to collaborations in science and technology. The basis of the metaphor is anthropological studies of how different cultures are able to exchange goods, despite differences in language and culture.

UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies

The UCL Department of Science and Technology Studies is an academic department in University College London, London, England. It is part of UCLs Faculty of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. The department offers academic training at both undergr ...

User innovation

User innovation refers to innovation by intermediate users or consumer users, rather than by suppliers. This is a concept closely aligned to co-design, and has been proven to result in more innovative solutions than traditional consultation metho ...

Science wars

The science wars were a series of intellectual exchanges, between scientific realists and postmodernist critics, about the nature of scientific theory and intellectual inquiry. They took place principally in the United States in the 1990s in the ...

Branches of science

The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines," are commonly divided into three major groups: Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena. Natural science can be divided into two main ...

Formal science

Formal science is a branch of science studying formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence, information theory, game theory, systems theo ...

Sexology

Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors, and functions. The term sexology does not generally refer to the non-scientific study of sexuality, such as political science or social criticism. S ...

Anal sex

Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a persons anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure. Other forms of anal sex include fingering, the use of sex toys for anal penetration, oral sex p ...

Analloeroticism

Analloeroticism + allo- + erotic + -ism) is having no sexual interests in other persons. Anil Aggrawal considers it distinct from asexuality and defines the latter as the lack of a sex drive. Analloerotics are unattracted to female or male partne ...

Animal roleplay

Animal roleplay is a form of roleplay where at least one participant plays the part of a non-human animal. As with most forms of roleplay, its uses include play and psychodrama. Animal roleplay may also be found in BDSM contexts, where an individ ...

Aphanisis

In psychoanalytic theory, aphanisis is the disappearance of sexual desire. The etymology of the term refers to it as the absence of brilliance in the astronomical sense such as the fading or the disappearance of a star. The term was later applied ...

Benjamin scale

The Sex Orientation Scale was Harry Benjamins attempt to classify and understand various forms and subtypes of transvestism and transsexualism in biological males, published in 1966. It was a seven-point scale ; it was analogous to the Kinsey Sca ...

Blanchard's transsexualism typology

Blanchards transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colle ...