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Legalization

Legalization is the process of removing a legal prohibition against something which is currently not legal. Legalization is a process often applied to what are regarded, by those working towards legalization, as victimless crimes, of which one ex ...

Legalized abortion and crime effect

The effect of legalized abortion on crime is a controversial hypothesis about the reduction in crime in the decades following the legalization of abortion. Proponents argue that the availability of abortion resulted in fewer births of children at ...

Lockdown

A lockdown is an emergency protocol that usually prevents people or information from leaving an area. The protocol can usually only be initiated by someone in a position of authority. Lockdowns can also be used to protect people inside a facility ...

Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso, was an Italian criminologist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established classical school, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, ...

Nellie May Madison

Nellie May Madison was an American woman who was convicted of murder in 1934 for killing her husband. She was the first woman to be sentenced to death in the state of California. Due to public outcry, her sentence was later commuted to life in pr ...

Market reduction approach

Current development of the market reduction approach MRA has its origins in a 1995 British Journal of Criminology paper: Supply by Theft that was followed by a 1998 United Kingdom Government Home Office research study entitled Handling Stolen Goo ...

Marxist criminology

Marxist criminology is one of the schools of criminology. It parallels the work of the structural functionalism school which focuses on what produces stability and continuity in society but, unlike the functionalists, it adopts a predefined polit ...

Meadow's law

Now discredited, Meadows Law was a precept much in use until recently in the field of child protection, specifically by those investigating cases of multiple cot or crib death – SIDS – within a single family.

Research on the effects of violence in mass media

The studies of violence in mass media analyzes the degree of correlation between themes of violence in media sources with real-world aggression and violence over time. Many social scientists support the correlation. However, some scholars argue t ...

The Medieval Underworld

The Medieval Underworld is a 1972 illustrated book authored by Andrew McCall, published by Barnes & Noble Books in New York. It details the basis for criminal and ecclesiastical justice from the fall of Rome to about 1500. The book has been disti ...

Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment

The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment evaluated the effectiveness of various police responses to domestic violence calls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This experiment was implemented during 1981-82 by Lawrence W. Sherman, Director of Research ...

Minnesota Protocol

The Minnesota Protocol on the Investigation of Potentially Unlawful Death is a set of international guidelines for the investigation of suspicious deaths, particularly those in which the responsibility of a State is suspected. The original versio ...

Mobility triangles

In criminology, Mobility triangles are the triangular areas formed by the locations of the victims home, the offenders home and the crime. They are used to describe spatial patterns of crimes, and to facilitate the classification of crimes based ...

Modus operandi

A modus operandi is someones habits of working, particularly in the context of business or criminal investigations, but also more generally. It is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as mode of operating.

Murder conviction without a body

Conviction for murder in the absence of a body is possible. Historically, cases of this type have been hard to prove, forcing the prosecution to rely on other kinds of evidence, usually circumstantial. Developments in forensic science towards the ...

Narrative crime script

A narrative crime script is a step-by-step account of the procedures and decision-making processes involved in a particular event, usually relating to an illegal activity. It is constructed using a logical sequence of events that is easily interp ...

National Museum of Crime & Punishment

The National Museum of Crime and Punishment, also known as the Crime Museum, was a privately owned museum dedicated to the history of criminology and penology in the United States. It was located in the Penn Quarter neighborhood of Washington, D. ...

NDCRTC

National Digital Crime Resource & Training Centre is a centre functioning under the IT wing of SVP National Police Academy with the objective of Capacity Building of Law Enforcement Agencies in Cyber Crime Investigation. This Centre is giving tra ...

Neo-classical school (criminology)

In criminology, the Neo-Classical School continues the traditions of the Classical School within the framework of Right Realism. Hence, the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria remains a relevant social philosophy in policy term f ...

Neo-feudalism

Neo-feudalism or new feudalism is a theorized contemporary rebirth of policies of governance, economy, and public life reminiscent of those present in many feudal societies, such as unequal rights and legal protections for common people and for n ...

Neurocriminology

Neurocriminology is an emerging sub-discipline of biocriminology and criminology that applies brain imaging techniques and principles from neuroscience to understand, predict, and prevent crime.

Nurturant strategy

Nurturant strategy is a crime prevention strategy that attempts to prevent development of crime through nurturing actions as part of early childhood intervention. The strategy works to improve early life experiences and channel child and adolesce ...

Overcriminalization

Overcriminalization is the concept that criminalization has become excessive, meaning that an excessive number of laws and regulations deeming conduct illegal have a detrimental effect on society, particularly with respect to victimless crimes an ...

Pacification theory

Pacification theory is a counter-hegemonic approach to the study of police and security which views the contemporary security-industrial complex as both an organizing and systematic war strategy targeting domestic and foreign enemies while simult ...

Penal populism

Penal populism is a process whereby the major political parties compete with each other to be "tough on crime". It is generally associated with a public perception that crime is out of control and tends to manifest at general elections when polit ...

Phenomenological criminology

Phenomenological criminology is an outlook on the causation of crime. Its roots are derived from phenomenology, that an idea is relevant only to the human mind and human consciousness, and imperceptible to the outside world. Its relation to crimi ...

Phrenology

Phrenology, meaning mind, and λόγος, meaning knowledge) is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits. It is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain a ...

Polycrates complex

This complex was named after the tyrant Polycrates who, instead of heeding his daughters prophecy of his impending death, went to visit a treacherous would-be benefactor and was murdered.

Positivist school (criminology)

The Positivist School was founded by Cesare Lombroso and was led by two others; Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo. In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of crimi ...

Postmodernist school (criminology)

The postmodernist school in criminology applies postmodernism to the study of crime and criminals. It is based on an understanding of "criminality" as a product of the use of power to limit the behaviour of those individuals excluded from power, ...

Pre-crime

Pre-crime is a term coined by science fiction author Philip K. Dick. It is increasingly used in academic literature to describe and criticise the tendency in criminal justice systems to focus on crimes not yet committed. Pre-crime intervenes to p ...

Predictive policing

Predictive policing refers to the usage of mathematical, predictive analytics, and other analytical techniques in law enforcement to identify potential criminal activity. Predictive policing methods fall into four general categories: methods for ...

Primary deviance

Primary Deviance is the initial stage in defining deviant behavior. Prominent Sociologist Edwin Lemert conceptualized primary deviance as engaging in the initial act of deviance. This is very common throughout society, as everyone takes part in b ...

Problem-solving courts in the United States

Problem-solving courts address the underlying problems that contribute to criminal behavior and are a current trend in the legal system of the United States. In 1989, a judge in Miami began to take a hands-on approach to drug addicts, ordering th ...

Psychoanalytic criminology

Psychoanalytic criminology is a method of studying crime and criminal behaviour that draws from Freudian psychoanalysis. This school of thought examines personality and the psyche for motive in crime. Other areas of interest are the fear of crime ...

Public criminology

Public criminology is an approach to criminology that disseminates criminological research beyond academia to broader audiences, such as criminal justice practitioners and the general public. Public criminology is closely tied with" public sociol ...

Pyrrhic defeat theory

In criminology, pyrrhic defeat theory is a way of looking at criminal justice policy. It suggests that the criminal justice system’s intentions are the very opposite of common expectations; it functions the way it does in order to create a specif ...

Quantitative methods in criminology

Quantitative methods provide the primary research methods for studying the distribution and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide numerous ways to obtain data that are useful to many aspects of society. The use of quantitative methods suc ...

Radical criminology

Radical criminology states that society "functions" in terms of the general interests of the ruling class rather than "society as a whole" and that while the potential for conflict is always present, it is continually neutralized by the power of ...

Rational choice theory (criminology)

In criminology, rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that humans are reasoning actors who weigh means and ends, costs and benefits, in order to make a rational choice. This method was designed by Cornish and Clarke to assist in thin ...

Reassurance policing

Reassurance policing is a model of policing that centers on signal crimes. Developed in the United Kingdom, reassurance policing aims to identify "signals", and involve the community in solving community-related problems.

Recidivism

Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been trained to extinguish that behavior. It is also used to refer to the percentage of former ...

Religious abuse

Religious abuse is abuse administered under the guise of religion, including harassment or humiliation, which may result in psychological trauma. Religious abuse may also include misuse of religion for selfish, secular, or ideological ends such a ...

Respect agenda

The Respect agenda was launched in September 2005 by Tony Blair in the United Kingdom. Tony Blair described it as being about "putting the law-abiding majority back in charge of their communities". Its aim was to help central government, local ag ...

Risk and actuarial criminology

Risk and actuarial criminology, unlike many other theories of crime, does not focus on the causality of crime. It believes the social world is too complex and interlocking to understand what causes a behaviour or action. This theory seeks to unde ...

Risk factor (criminology)

Risk factor research has proliferated within the discipline of Criminology in recent years, based largely on the early work of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the USA and David Farrington in the UK. The identification of risk factors that are alleg ...

Risk-need-responsivity model

The risk-need-responsivity model is a model used in criminology to develop recommendations for how prisoners should be assessed based on the risk they present and what they need, and what kinds of environments they should be placed in to reduce r ...

Rogues' gallery

In 1855, Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, established a rogues gallery – a compilation of descriptions, methods of operation modi operandi, hiding places, and names of criminals and their associates. Another ea ...

Role engulfment

In labeling theory, role engulfment refers to how a persons identity becomes based on a role the person assumes, superseding other roles. A negative role such as "sick" can serve to constrict a persons self-image.

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