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Environmental surveying

Environmental surveying is the title of a profession within the wider field of surveying, the practitioners of which are known as environmental surveyors. Environmental surveyors use surveying techniques to understand the potential impact of envi ...

Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition

The Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition was an aerial survey of the Falkland Islands Dependencies and the Antarctic peninsula which took place in the 1955–56 and 1956–57 southern summers. Funded by the Colonial Office and o ...

Free stationing

In surveying, free stationing is a method of determining a location of one unknown point in relation to known points. There is a zero point of reference called a total station. The instrument can be freely positioned so that all survey points are ...

Furlong

A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U.S. customary units equal to one eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet, 220 yards, 40 rods, 10 chains or approximately 201 meters. In the United States some states use older definitions ...

Gaps and gores

The term gaps and gores refers to portions of land areas that do not conform to boundaries found in land surveys based upon imprecise measurements and other ambiguities of metes and bounds. A gap, also known as a hiatus, occurs where the descript ...

Geodat

Geodat was a commercial project, begun in 1980 and completed by 1991, that provided digital geographic mapping data for commercial users at scales equal to or greater than 1:1.000.000. The term "Geodat" was derived from "GEOgraphic DATa". Geodat ...

Geodetic control network

A geodetic control network is a network, often of triangles, which are measured precisely by techniques of terrestrial surveying or by satellite geodesy. A geodetic control network consists of stable, identifiable points with published datum valu ...

Glossary of levelling terms

This is a glossary of levelling terms. Levelling is a surveying method used to find relative height, one use of which is to ensure ground is level during construction, for example, when excavating to prepare for laying a foundation for a house.

Great Trigonometrical Survey

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to measure the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision. It was begun in 1802 by the infantry officer William Lambton, under the auspices of the East India Company. Under the ...

Gromatici

Gromatici or agrimensores was the name for land surveyors amongst the ancient Romans. The "gromatic writers" were technical writers who codified their techniques of surveying.

Hansen's problem

Hansens problem is a problem in planar surveying, named after the astronomer Peter Andreas Hansen, who worked on the geodetic survey of Denmark. There are two known points A and B, and two unknown points P 1 and P 2. From P 1 and P 2 an observer ...

High water mark

A high water mark is a point that represents the maximum rise of a body of water over land. Such a mark is often the result of a flood, but high water marks may reflect an all-time high, an annual high or the high point for some other division of ...

Hoppus

The hoppus cubic foot was the standard volume measurement used for timber in the British Empire and countries in the British sphere of influence before the introduction of metric units. It is still used in the hardwood trade of some countries. Th ...

Wire-drag survey

Hydrographic survey is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, dredging, offshore oil exploration/offshore oil drilling and related activities. Strong emphasis is placed on sou ...

Initial point

In surveying, an initial point is a datum that marks the beginning point for a cadastral survey. The initial point establishes a local geographic coordinate system for the surveys that refer to that point. An initial point is defined by the inter ...

Josephinian Land Survey

The Josephinian Land Survey was the first comprehensive land survey and mapping of the Habsburg Empire. The survey was ordered by Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa after Austrias defeat in the Seven Years War. It was conducted from 1763 to 1787, c ...

Kilometric point

A kilometric point is a term used in metricated areas, especially in France and Spain, to provide reference points alongside a transport route such as a road, a railway line or a canal. It is the distance in kilometres from a specified point. In ...

Knotted cord

A knotted cord was a primitive surveyors tool for measuring distances. It is a length of cord with knots at regular intervals. They were eventually replaced by surveyors chains, which being made of metal were less prone to stretching and thus wer ...

Land description

A land description location of the written words which delineate a specific piece of real property. Also known as a "Legal Description". In the written transfer of real property, it is universally required that the instrument of conveyance includ ...

Land information system

A land Information System is a geographic information system for cadastral and land-use mapping, typically used by local governments. A LIS consists of an accurate, current and reliable land record cadastre and its associated attribute and spatia ...

Land lot

In real estate, a lot or plot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner. A lot is essentially considered a parcel of real property in some countries or immovable property in other countries. Possible owner of a lot can ...

Land surveying in Kentucky

Land Surveying in Kentucky is regulated by the Commonwealth in KRS 322. The Standards of Practice are defined in 201 KAR 18:150. Compliance is maintained by the Kentucky Board of Engineers Land Surveyors, which was established by an Act of the Ke ...

Thomas Larcom

Major-General Sir Thomas Aiskew Larcom, 1st Baronet PC FRS was a leading official in the early Irish Ordnance Survey that started in 1824. He later became a poor law commissioner, census commissioner and finally executive head of the British admi ...

Least squares adjustment

Least squares adjustment is a model for the solution of an overdetermined system of equations based on the principle of least squares of observation residuals. It is used extensively in the disciplines of surveying, geodesy, and photogrammetry - ...

Levelling

Levelling or leveling is a branch of surveying, the object of which is to establish or verify or measure the height of specified points relative to a datum. It is widely used in cartography to measure geodetic height, and in construction to measu ...

Levelling refraction

Levelling refraction refers to the systematic refraction effect distorting the results of line levelling over the Earths surface. In line levelling, short segments of a line are levelled by taking readings through a level from two staffs, one for ...

Line laser

A line laser is a laser modified to project a line rather than a point. This may be achieved by passing the beam through a cylindrical lens or a Powell lens. Using multiple lasers, it is possible to project multiple lines for use with image proce ...

Local attraction

While compass surveying, the magnetic needle is sometimes disturbed from its normal position under the influence of external attractive forces. Such a disturbing influence is called as local attraction. The external forces are produced by sources ...

Machine guidance

The term Machine Guidance is used to describe a wide range of techniques which improve the productivity of agricultural, mining and construction equipment. It is most commonly used to describe systems which incorporate GPS, Motion Measuring Units ...

Macrometer

A macrometer is an instrument for measuring the size and distance of distant objects. Distant in this sense means a length that can not be readily measured by a calibrated length. The optical version of this instrument used two mirrors on a commo ...

Meridian (geography)

A meridian is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earths surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude, as measured in angular degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian. The position of a ...

Mile

The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5.280 feet, or 1.760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1.609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is also used to describe or translate a wide ran ...

Milestone

A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile. They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median or central reservation. They are alter ...

Mobile mapping

Mobile mapping is the process of collecting geospatial data from a mobile vehicle, typically fitted with a range of photographic, radar, laser, LiDAR or any number of remote sensing systems. Such systems are composed of an integrated array of tim ...

Museum of Lands, Mapping and Surveying

The Museum of Lands, Mapping and Surveying is a museum at 317 Edward Street, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It collects and exhibits material relating to the surveying of Queensland and the maps created. It is a sub-branch of the Queensland Mus ...

Nadir (topography)

In topography, a nadir is a point on a surface that is lower in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a nadir is a local minimum of elevation. A nadir may be the lowest point of a dry basin or depression, or the de ...

National Museum of Surveying

The National Museum of Surveying was originally the Michigan Museum of Surveying, but in 2007, the museum moved to Springfield, Illinois to become a national museum. The museum officially opened in Springfield on September 24, 2010 and closed in ...

Normalnull

Normalnull or Normal-Null is an outdated official vertical datum used in Germany. Elevations using this reference system were to be marked "Meter uber Normal-Null". Normalnull has been replaced by Normalhohennull.

North American Vertical Datum of 1988

The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 is the vertical datum for orthometric heights established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. It supersede ...

NTv2

The NTv2 is a standard binary grid shift file format. It can transform coordinates between the NAD27 and NAD83 geodetic reference systems for example. The transformation is bidimensional, or horizontal, and does not require heights.

Ordnance datum

In the British Isles, an ordnance datum or OD is a vertical datum used by an ordnance survey as the basis for deriving altitudes on maps. A spot height may be expressed as AOD for "above ordnance datum". Usually mean sea level is used for the dat ...

OrthoGraph

The OrthoGraph I is a building survey and floor plan creation application for iOS and Android, developed in Hungary. It handles both structured alphanumeric data, and measures and handles all drawings real time in 3D. It has built-in Cloud functi ...

Orthometric height

The orthometric height of a point is the distance H along a plumb line from the point to a reference height. When the reference height is a geoid model, orthometric height is for practical purposes "height above sea level". In the US, the current ...

Party wall

A party wall is a dividing partition between two adjoining buildings that is shared by the occupants of each residence or business. Typically, the builder lays the wall along a property line dividing two terraced houses, so that one half of the w ...

Permanent adjustments of theodolites

The permanent adjustments of theodolites are made to establish fixed relationship between the instruments fundamental lines. The fundamental lines or axis of a transit theodolite include the following:- Horizontal axis Axis of telescope Axis of a ...

Plane table

A plane table is a device used in surveying and related disciplines to provide a solid and level surface on which to make field drawings, charts and maps. The early use of the name plain table reflected its simplicity and plainness rather than it ...

Planimetria General de Madrid

The Planimetria General de Madrid or the General Survey of Madrid was a cadastral survey and registering of urban land carried out in the city of Madrid in the eighteenth century, between 1749 and 1759 The cadastre collected information related t ...

Planimetrics

To measure planimetrics a planimeter is used. This rather advanced analog technology is being taken over by simple image measurement software tools like, ImageJ, Adobe Acrobat, Google Earth Pro, Gimp, Photoshop and KLONK Image Measurement which c ...

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