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Third gender

Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman. It is also a social category present in societies that recognize three or more genders. The term third is u ...

Transgender

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their sex assigned at birth. Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual. Transgender, often ...

Water supply and women in developing countries

Water supply and women in developing countries is a complex topic, as lack of accessible, sufficient, clean and affordable water supply has adverse impacts specifically related to women in developing nations. In most countries, women are the prim ...

Who Fears Death

Who Fears Death is a science fantasy novel by Nigerian-American writer Nnedi Okorafor, published in 2010 by DAW, an imprint of Penguin Books. It was awarded the 2011 World Fantasy Award for Best Novel, as well as the 2010 Carl Brandon Kindred Awa ...

Women's studies

Womens studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and op ...

Glossary of history

This glossary of history is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to the study of history and its related fields and sub-disciplines, including both prehistory and the period of human history.

Index of history articles

History is the study of the past. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, families, and societies as preserved primarily through written sources. This is a list of history ...

Outline of history

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to history: History – discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invente ...

Auxiliary sciences of history

Auxiliary sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research. Many of these areas of study, classification and analysis were originally developed between ...

Biography

A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a persons life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a persons experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curricu ...

List of historical classifications

Pre-Columbian North America Central America Mesoamerica Latin America South America Classical antiquity Caribbean Late Antiquity Prehistoric Europe History of Europe Modern Europe Early modern period Eurasia Middle Ages East Asia Ancient Near Eas ...

Historical figure

A historical figure is a famous person in history, such as Catherine the Great, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, or Napoleon. The significance of such figures in human progress has been debated. Some think they play a crucial role, while other ...

Historical significance

Historical significance is a historiographical concept that defines and influences the social remembrance of past events. Historians consider knowledge of dates and events the primary content of history, or "first-order knowledge". They class his ...

Humor research

Humor research is a multifaceted field which enters the domains of linguistics, history, and literature. Research in humor has been done to understand the psychological and physiological effects, both positive and negative, on a person or groups ...

Salvatore Attardo

Salvatore Attardo is a full professor at Texas A&M University–Commerce and the editor-in-chief of Humor, the journal for the International Society of Humor Research. He studied at Purdue University under Victor Raskin and extended Raskins scr ...

Computational humor

Computational humor is a branch of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence which uses computers in humor research. It is a relatively new area, with the first dedicated conference organized in 1996. The first "computer model of a se ...

Gelotology

Gelotology is the study of laughter and its effects on the body, from a psychological and physiological perspective. Its proponents often advocate induction of laughter on therapeutic grounds in alternative medicine. The field of study was pionee ...

Humor (journal)

Humor: International Journal of Humor Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Walter de Gruyter on behalf of the International Society for Humor Studies. As of 2012, its editor-in-chief is Giselinde Kuipers. The journal publishe ...

Humor in Freud

Sigmund Freud noticed that humor, like dreams, can be related to unconscious content. In the 1905 book Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious, as well as in the 1928 journal article Humor, Freud distinguished contentious jokes from non-conte ...

In-joke

An in-joke, also known as an inside joke or a private joke, is a joke whose humour is understandable only to members of an ingroup, that is, people who are in a particular social group, occupation, or other community of shared interest. It is an ...

List of humor research publications

This page lists publications in humor research, with brief annotations. The list includes books, scholarly journals that regularly cover articles in humor research, as well as some seminal, frequently cited journal articles about humor. This list ...

Peter McGraw

A. Peter McGraw is a professor of Marketing and Psychology at the University of Colorado Boulder. As a behavioral scientist his research spans the fields of judgment and decision making, emotion, affect, mood, and behavioral economics. McGraws ea ...

Misattribution theory of humor

Misattribution is one of many theories of humor that describes an audiences inability to identify exactly why they find a joke to be funny. The formal theory is attributed to Zillmann & Bryant in their article, "Misattribution Theory of Tendentio ...

John Allen Paulos

John Allen Paulos is an American professor of mathematics at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He has gained fame as a writer and speaker on mathematics and the importance of mathematical literacy. Paulos writes about many subjects ...

Victor Raskin

Victor Raskin is a distinguished professor of linguistics at Purdue University. He is the author of Semantic Mechanisms of Humor and Ontological Semantics and founding editor of Humor, the journal for the International Society for Humor Studies. ...

Theories of humor

There are many theories of humor which attempt to explain what humor is, what social functions it serves, and what would be considered humorous. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of humor, there are ...

World's funniest joke

The "worlds funniest joke" is a term used by Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire in 2002 to summarize one of the results of his research. For his experiment, named LaughLab, he created a website where people could rate and submit j ...

Arts and Humanities Citation Index

The Arts & Humanities Citation Index, also known as Arts & Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1.700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural scienc ...

ERIH PLUS

ERIH PLUS is an index containing bibliographic information on academic journals in the humanities and social sciences. The index includes all journals that meet the following requirements: "explicit procedures for external peer review; an academi ...

List of humanities journals

The following is a partial list of humanities journals, for academic study and research in the humanities There are thousands of humanities journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. The list given h ...

A. J. Ayer

Sir Alfred Jules Freddie Ayer, usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was an English philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic and The Problem of Knowledge. He was educated at Eton Colle ...

Gustav Bergmann

Gustav Bergmann was an Austrian-born American philosopher. He studied at the University of Vienna and was a member of the Vienna Circle. Bergmann was influenced by the philosophers Moritz Schlick, Friedrich Waismann, and Rudolf Carnap who were me ...

Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Carnap was a German-language philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle and an advocate of logical positivism. He is considered "one of the giants among ...

Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He worked as a mathematics professor at the University of Jena, and is understood by many to be the father of analytic philosophy, concentrating on the philosop ...

Linguistic philosophy

Linguistic philosophy is the view that philosophical problems could be solved either by reforming language or by understanding more about the language that we presently use. The former position is that of ideal language philosophy, the latter the ...

Logical positivism

Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, and both of which together are also known as neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was the verification principle. Also called verificationism, this would-be ...

Louis Mink

Louis O. Mink Jr. was a philosopher of history whose works challenged early philosopher of history R. G. Collingwood and were part of a postmodern dialogue on history and historical narrative with other philosophers of history, like Hayden White ...

G. E. Moore

George Edward Moore, usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher. He was, with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of the analytic tradition in philosophy. Along with Russell, he led the turn ...

On Denoting

On Denoting is an essay by Bertrand Russell. It was published in the philosophy journal Mind in 1905. In it, Russell introduces and advocates his theory of denoting phrases, according to which definite descriptions and other "denoting phrases. ne ...

Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism is either a continuation or a rejection of the intellectual project that preceded it - structuralism. Structuralism proposes that one may understand human culture by means of a structure - modeled on language - that differs fro ...

Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle was a British philosopher. He was a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers who shared Ludwig Wittgensteins approach to philosophical problems, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian ...

Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist and semiotician. His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both linguistics and semiology in the 20th century. He is widely considered one of the founders of 20th-century linguisti ...

Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick ; April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.

Structuralism

In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a broader, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures ...

Alfred Tarski

Alfred Tarski, born Alfred Teitelbaum, was a Polish-American logician and mathematician of Polish-Jewish descent. Educated in Poland at the University of Warsaw, and a member of the Lwow–Warsaw school of logic and the Warsaw school of mathematics ...

Lev Vygotsky

Lev Vygotsky was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished Marxist theory of human cultural and bio-social development, the "cultural-historical psychology" and a "science of Superman", a new psychological theory of consciousness and it ...

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. From 1929 to 1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of ...

Outline of linguistics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. Linguistics can be theoretical or applied.

Abstraction (linguistics)

The term abstraction has a number of uses in the field of linguistics. It can denote a process in the development of language, whereby terms become used for concepts further removed from the objects to which they were originally attached. It can ...

Anaphoric clitic

In linguistics, anaphoric clitics are a specific subset of clitics: morphologically-bound morphemes that syntactically resemble one word unit, but are bound phonologically to another word unit. Anaphoric clitics are a type of anaphor, meaning tha ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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