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Justitium

Not to be confused with iustitia, the Latin word for "justice," Justitia, the allegorical figure representing justice, or Justinian, the byzantine emperor during the era of ancient Rome. Justitium is a concept of Roman law, equivalent to the decl ...

Law and economics

Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics. Economic concepts are used to explain the effects of laws, to assess ...

Law and Gospel

In Protestant Christianity, the relationship between Law and Gospel - Gods Law and the Gospel of Jesus Christ - is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. In these religious traditions, the distinction between the doctrines of Law, which ...

Law and literature

The law and literature movement focuses on the interdisciplinary connection between law and literature. This field has roots in two major developments in the intellectual history of law - first, the growing doubt about whether law in isolation is ...

Law as integrity

In philosophy of law, law as integrity is a theory of law put forward by the legal philosopher Ronald Dworkin. In general, it can be described as interpreting the law according to a community.

Law in action

Law in action is a legal theory, associated with legal realism, that examines the role of law, not just as it exists in the statutes and cases, but as it is actually applied in society. Law in action scholars often start with observations about t ...

Law reform

Law reform or legal reform is the process of examining existing laws, and advocating and implementing change in a legal system, usually with the aim of enhancing justice or efficiency. Intimately related are law reform bodies or law commissions, ...

Law, Legislation and Liberty

Law, Legislation and Liberty is a work in three volumes by Nobel laureate economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek. In it, Hayek further develops the philosophical principles he discussed earlier in The Road to Serfdom, The Constitutio ...

Laws (dialogue)

The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. The conversation depicted in the works twelve books begins with the question of who is given the credit for establishing a civilizations laws. Its musings on the ethics of government and law have esta ...

Legal Education and the Reproduction of Hierarchy

Legal Education and the Reproduction of Hierarchy: A Polemic Against the System is an essay by Duncan Kennedy on legal education in the United States of America. The work is a critique of American legal education and argues that legal education r ...

Legal naturalism

Legal naturalism is a term coined by Olufemi Taiwo to describe a current in the social philosophy of Karl Marx which can be interpreted as one of natural law. Taiwo considered it the manifestation of Natural Law in a dialectical materialist conte ...

Legal nihilism

Legal nihilism is negative attitude toward law. Legal nihilism is "an erosion of the belief in law as a beneficial institution of societal organization." Many scholars believe that legal nihilism is a destructive phenomenon. Depending on the law ...

Legal positivism

Legal positivism is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence largely developed by legal thinkers in the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. While Bentham and Austin developed legal positivist theory, empiricism ...

Legal Positivism (book)

Legal Positivism is a book by the Italian jurist Norberto Bobbio about one of the ontological elements of foundations of law - the jusphilosophical school called juspositivism or legal positivism.

Legal process (jurisprudence)

The legal process school was a movement within American law that attempted to chart a third way between legal formalism and legal realism. Drawing its name from Hart & Sacks textbook The Legal Process, it is associated with scholars such as Herbe ...

Legal realism

Legal realism is a naturalistic approach to law. It is the view that jurisprudence should emulate the methods of natural science, i.e., rely on empirical evidence. Hypotheses must be tested against observations of the world. Legal realists believ ...

Letter and spirit of the law

The letter of the law versus the spirit of the law is an idiomatic antithesis. When one obeys the letter of the law but not the spirit, one is obeying the literal interpretation of the words of the law, but not necessarily the intent of those who ...

Lord Advocate's Reference

A Lord Advocates Reference is a procedure by which the Lord Advocate can refer a point of law that has arisen during the course of solemn proceedings to the High Court of Justiciary sitting as the Court of Criminal Appeal, for a determination. Th ...

Man-made law

Man-made law is law that is made by humans, usually considered in opposition to concepts like natural law or divine law. The European and American conception of man-made law has changed radically in the period from the Middle Ages to the present ...

Monarchomachs

The Monarchomachs were originally French Huguenot theorists who opposed monarchy at the end of the 16th century, known in particular for having theoretically justified tyrannicide. The term was originally a pejorative word coined in 1600 by the S ...

Mutual liberty

Mutual liberty is an idea first coined by Alexis de Tocqueville in his 1835 work Democracy in America. In effect, Tocqueville was referring to the general nature of American society during the 19th century. It appeared to him, at least on the sur ...

Natural Law and Natural Rights

Natural Law and Natural Rights is a book about natural law and natural rights by the philosopher John Finnis. The book was first published by Oxford University Press.

Natural order (philosophy)

In philosophy, the natural order is the moral source from which natural law seeks to derive its authority. Natural order encompasses the natural relations of beings to one another in the absence of law, which natural law attempts to reinforce. Th ...

Natural-law argument

Natural-law argument for the existence of God was especially popular in the eighteenth century as a result of the influence of Sir Isaac Newton. As Bertrand Russell pointed out much later, many of the things we consider to be laws of nature, in f ...

New Criminal Law Review

The New Criminal Law Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed law journal published by University of California Press. It was established in 1997 as the Buffalo Criminal Law Review, but changed names in 2007 after the University of California Press to ...

Norm (philosophy)

Norms are concepts of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express. Normative sentences imply "ought-to" types of statements and assertions, in distinction to sentences ...

Obligation

An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. Obligations are constraints; they limit freedom. People who are under obligations may choose to freely act under obligations. Obligation exists when the ...

Original intent

Original intent is a theory in law concerning constitutional and statutory interpretation. It is frequently used as a synonym for originalism; while original intent is indeed one theory in the originalist family, it has some salient differences w ...

Original meaning

In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, original meaning is the dominant form of the legal theory of originalism today. It was made popular by Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia and contends that the terms of the United S ...

Pandectists

The Pandectists were German university legal scholars in the early 19th century who studied and taught Roman law as a model of what they called Konstruktionsjurisprudenz as codified in the Pandects of Justinian. Beginning in the mid-19th century, ...

Perpetual copyright

Perpetual copyright can refer to a copyright without a finite term, or to a copyright whose finite term is perpetually extended. Perpetual copyright in the former sense is highly uncommon, as the current laws of all countries with copyright statu ...

Philosophy of human rights

The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why the concept of ...

Philosophy of law

Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy that examines the nature of law and laws relationship to other systems of norms, especially ethics and political philosophy. It asks questions like "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal valid ...

Eunomics

Eunomics is a term, first proposed by legal scholar Lon Fuller in 1954, to describe "the science, theory or study of good order and workable arrangements". Stemming from Behavioral Systems Theory, it was an attempt to fuse what Fuller saw as the ...

Political jurisprudence

Political jurisprudence is a legal theory that some judicial decisions are motivated more by politics than by unbiased judgment. According to Professor Martin Shapiro of University of California, Berkeley, who first noted the theory in 1964: "The ...

Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant

The political philosophy of Immanuel Kant favoured a classical republican approach. In Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a ...

Political sociology

Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State and civil society to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power. The lineag ...

Polycentric law

Polycentric law is a legal structure in which providers of legal systems compete or overlap in a given jurisdiction, as opposed to monopolistic statutory law according to which there is a sole provider of law for each jurisdiction. Devolution of ...

Positive law

Positive laws are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action. It also describes the establishment of specific rights for an individual or group. Etymologically, the name derives from the verb to posit. The concept of positive law is distinc ...

Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience, interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive sou ...

Postglossator

The postglossators or commentators formed a European legal school which arose in Italy and France in the fourteenth century. They form the highest point of development of medieval Roman law. The school of the glossators in Bologna lost its vitali ...

Postmodern law

Postmodern law, and postmodern jurisprudence, relates to interpretations of the legal system using postmodern philosophy and the theories of postmodernism. It also relevant to law within the context of the postmodern era. Since the mid-1990s Annu ...

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, also known as usūl al-fiqh, are traditional methodological principles used in Islamic jurisprudence for deriving the rulings of Islamic law. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence elaborates how the scrip ...

Professor of Jurisprudence (Glasgow)

The chair was founded in 1952 and the first holder, David Walker, was appointed in 1954. Walker was himself a graduate of the Faculty of Law and would go on to become a distinguished legal scholar, being appointed Regius Professor of Law in 1958. ...

Prohibitionism

Prohibitionism is a legal philosophy and political theory often used in lobbying which holds that citizens will abstain from actions if the actions are typed as unlawful and the prohibitions are enforced by law enforcement. This philosophy has be ...

Purposive approach

The purposive approach is an approach to statutory and constitutional interpretation under which common law courts interpret an enactment within the context of the laws purpose. Purposive interpretation is a derivation of mischief rule set in Hey ...

Question of law

In law, a question of law, also known as a point of law, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law. Such a question is distinct from a question of fact, which must be answered by refere ...

Radbruch formula

The Radbruch formula is a theory of law which was first formulated in a 1946 essay by the German law professor and politician Gustav Radbruch. According to the theory, a judge who encounters a conflict between a statute and what he perceives as j ...

Retfærd

Retfærd, subtitled Nordic Journal of Law and Justice, is a Nordic peer-reviewed academic journal of legal science, publishing research from a "theoretical and practical point of view on the basis of not only jurisprudence, but also sociology, cri ...

Roerich Pact

The Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an inter-American treaty. The most important idea of the Roerich Pact is the legal recognition that the defense of cultural objects is ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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