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Human condition

The human condition is the set of characteristics, key events, and situations that compose the essentials of human existence, including birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality. This is a very broad topic which has been an ...

Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with ...

Political idealism

An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics, and ones prioritization of ideals can serve to indicate the extent of ones dedication to each. For example, someone who espouses the ideal of ...

Lebensphilosophie

Lebensphilosophie is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy.

Les Dialogues d’Evhemere

Les Dialogues d’Evhemere is a little-known philosophical dialogue by Voltaire, published in 1777. At the time of its writing he was 83 years old and knew that he was coming to the end of his life: the work is a kind of philosophical testament. Li ...

Lifestyle (sociology)

Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. The term was introduced by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler with the meaning of "a persons basic character as established early ...

Meaning and Purpose

Meaning and Purpose, written by Kenneth Walker, was first published in September 1944 by Jonathan Cape, London, and republished by Pelican books in 1950. The purpose of the book, as stated in the preface, was ". to examine critically those scient ...

Metanoia (psychology)

Metanoia has been used in psychology since at least the time of American philosopher/psychologist William James to describe a process of fundamental change in the human personality. The term derives from the Ancient Greek words μετά meta meaning ...

Missional living

In Christianity, missional living is the adoption of the posture, thinking, behaviors, and practices of a missionary in order to engage others with the gospel message. The missional church movement, a church renewal movement predicated on the nec ...

Moral conversion

In philosophy, moral conversion is an existential change in the person, who is perceived as the moral agent adopting new moral standards in a process of internal transformation. Moral conversion is a relatively rare event in a persons normal deve ...

Moral responsibility

In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission performed or neglected in accordance with ones moral obligations. Deciding what counts as "morally obligatory" is a ...

The Myth of Male Power

The Myth of Male Power: Why Men are the Disposable Sex is a 1993 book by Warren Farrell, in which the author argues that the widespread perception of men having inordinate social and economic power is false, and that men are systematically disadv ...

Friedrich Nietzsche and free will

The 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche is known as a critic of Judeo-Christian morality and religions in general. One of the arguments he raised against the truthfulness of these doctrines is that they are based upon the concept of free ...

Nihilism

Nihilism is the point of view, or philosophy, antithetical to the reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or int ...

Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of philosophical ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics bec ...

Personal experience

Personal experience of a human being is the moment-to-moment experience and sensory awareness of internal and external events or a sum of experiences forming an empirical unity such as a period of life.

Personal life

Personal life is the course or state of an individuals life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to ones personal identity. Apart from hunter-gatherers, most pre-modern peoples time was limited by the need to meet n ...

Phenomenological life (Michel Henry)

Phenomenological life is life considered from a philosophical and rigorously phenomenological point of view. The relevant philosophical project is called radical phenomenology of life or material phenomenology of life ". This part of phenomenolog ...

Philosophy of happiness

The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness. Some philosophers believe happiness can be understood as the moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance; indeed, in most European ...

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism is a school of philosophical skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BCE. It is best known through the surviving works of Sextus Empiricus, writing in the late second century or early third century CE.

Religion of Humanity

Religion of Humanity is a secular religion created by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivist philosophy. Adherents of this religion have built chapels of Humanity in France and Brazil. In the United States and Europe, Comtes ideas influenced ot ...

Gaius Musonius Rufus

Gaius Musonius Rufus was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD. He taught philosophy in Rome during the reign of Nero, as consequence of which he was sent into exile in 65 AD, only returning to Rome under Galba. He was allowed to stay i ...

Emma Rush

Emma Rush is a lecturer in philosophy and ethics at Charles Sturt University Faculty of Arts, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, notable for her work on sexualisation of children. In 2006, Rush worked on a series of reports for The Austral ...

The Secret (book)

The Secret is a best-selling 2006 self-help book by Rhonda Byrne, based on the earlier film of the same name. It is based on the belief of the law of attraction, which claims that thoughts can change a persons life directly. The book has sold 30 ...

Self-interest

Self-interest generally refers to a focus on the needs or desires of ones self. Most times, actions that display self-interest are often performed without conscious knowing. A number of philosophical, psychological, and economic theories examine ...

Self-reflection

Human self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and to attempt to learn more about their fundamental nature and essence. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest that humanity has had in itself. Mor ...

Selfism

Selfism refers to any philosophy, theory, doctrine, or tendency that upholds explicitly selfish principles as being desirable. The term is usually used pejoratively.

Selling out

Selling out is a common expression for the compromising of a persons integrity, morality, authenticity, or principles in exchange for personal gain, such as money. In terms of music or art, selling out is associated with attempts to tailor materi ...

Sentientism

Sentientism is a naturalistic ethical philosophy according to which all sentient beings deserve moral consideration. In extending compassion to non-human animals as well as to any potential artificial or alien sentient beings, sentientism can be ...

Seriousness

Seriousness is an attitude of gravity, solemnity, persistence, and earnestness toward something considered to be of importance. Some notable philosophers and commentators have criticised excessive seriousness, while others have praised it. Seriou ...

Social alienation

Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or w ...

Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy which was founded by Zeno of Citium, in Athens, in the early 3rd century BC. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According ...

Tao

Tao or Dao) is a Chinese word signifying "way", "path", "route", "road" or sometimes more loosely "doctrine", "principle" or "holistic beliefs". In the context of East Asian philosophy and East Asian religions, Tao is the natural order of the uni ...

Thrownness

Thrownness is a concept introduced by German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe humans individual existences as "being thrown" into the world.

Tri Hita Karana

Tri Hita Karana is a traditional philosophy for life on the island of Bali, Indonesia. The literal translation is roughly the "three causes of well-being" or "three reasons for prosperity." The three causes referred to in the principle are: Harmo ...

Anthropopithecus

The terms Anthropopithecus and Pithecanthropus are obsolete taxa describing either chimpanzees or archaic humans. Both are derived from Greek ἄνθρωπος and πίθηκος, translating to "man-ape" and "ape-man", respectively. Anthropopithecus was origina ...

Kakabekia

Kakabekia is an about two billion-year-old fossil genus of microorganism from the Gunflint Chert. Kakabekia barghoorniana is a living fossil of this genus.

Reproduction

Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. Th ...

Allogamy

Allogamy is a term used in the field of biological reproduction describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another. By contrast, autogamy is the term used for self-fertilization. In humans, the fertilizati ...

Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct haploid sexual and diploid asexual stages. In these groups, a multicellular haploid gamet ...

Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation, the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the ...

Anisogamy

Anisogamy is the form of sexual reproduction that involves the union or fusion of two gametes, which differ in size and/or form. The smaller gamete is considered to be male, whereas the larger gamete is regarded as female. There are several types ...

Apicomplexan life cycle

Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle. Each stage in the life cycle of an apicomplexan organ ...

Artificial reproduction

Artificial reproduction is the creation of new life by other than the natural means available to an organism. Examples include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, cloning and embryonic splitting, or cleavage. Cutting plants stems and ...

Autogamy

Autogamy, or self-fertilization, refers to the fusion of two gametes that come from one individual. Autogamy is predominantly observed in the form of self-pollination, a reproductive mechanism employed by many flowering plants. However, species o ...

Autotoky

Autotoky is uniparental reproduction by self-fertilization or by parthenogenesis. The word comes from the Greek words auto meaning self and tokos meaning birth.

Biological dispersal

Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals from their birth site to their breeding site, as well as the movement from one breeding site to another. Dispersal is also used to describe the movement of propagules such as seeds a ...

Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state. "The concept is closely related to those of the life history, development and ontogeny, but differs from them in stres ...

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