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A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law. In both common law and civil law legal systems, courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all people have an ability to bring their claims before a court. Similarly, the rights of those accused of a crime include the right to present a defense before a court. The system of courts that interprets and applies the law is collectively known as the judiciary. The place where a court sits is known as a venue. The room where court proceedings occur is known as a courtroom, and the building as a courthouse; court facilities range from simple and very small facilities in rural communities to large buildings in cities. The practical authority given to the court is known as its jurisdiction Latin: jus dicere – the courts power to decide certain kinds of questions or petitions put to it. According to William Blackstones Commentaries on the Laws of England, a court is constituted by a minimum of three parties: the actor or plaintiff, who complains of an injury done; the reus or defendant, who is called upon to make satisfaction for it, and the judex or judicial power, which is to examine the truth of the fact, to determine the law arising upon that fact, and, if any injury appears to have been done, to ascertain and by its officers to apply a legal remedy. It is also usual in the superior courts to have barristers, and attorneys or counsel, as assistants, though, often, courts consist of additional barristers, bailiffs, reporters, and perhaps a jury. The term "the court" is also used to refer to the presiding officer or officials, usually one or more judges. The judge or panel of judges may also be collectively referred to as "the bench" in contrast to attorneys and barristers, collectively referred to as "the bar". In the United States, and other common law jurisdictions, the term "court" in the case of U.S. federal courts by law is used to describe the judge himself or herself. In the United States, the legal authority of a court to take action is based on personal jurisdiction over the parties to the litigation and subject-matter jurisdiction over the claims asserted.

Consular court

Consular courts were law courts established by foreign powers in countries where they had extraterritorial rights. They were presided over by consular officers.

Court of Historical Review

The Court of Historical Review is a mock court in San Francisco, California. It has been convened on irregular intervals over several decades in order to decide questions of historical curiosity. The courts judgment is purely symbolic and has no legal or academic authority. The court has been presided over by a number of actual or retired judges, including U.S. District Court Judge Daniel Hanlon and San Francisco Municipal Court Judge George T. Choppelas. Though it is a mock court, a number of notable attorneys and civic figures have argued cases and appeared as "witnesses", sometimes in character as historical figures. The courts proceedings are described as colorful and are reported widely.

In camera

In camera is a legal term that means in private. The same meaning is sometimes expressed in the English equivalent: in chambers. Generally, in-camera describes court cases, parts of it, or process where the public and press are not allowed to observe the procedure or process. In-camera is the opposite of trial in open court where all parties and witnesses testify in a public courtroom, and attorneys publicly present their arguments to the trier of fact.

International Skat Court

The International Skat Court is the highest decision-making body in the sport of Skat. It oversees the observance of the International Skat Order, the refereeing regulations and the rules for referees in Skat. The International Skat Court was founded on 1 December 2001 by a merger of the German Skat Court, founded in Altenburg in 1927, with the Rules Commission of the International Skat Players Association. It took over on 1 January 2002 and its seat is in the Hotel am RoSplan in the centre of Altenburg. Until 1978 the German Skat Court had a three-member panel; from 1978 to 1990 it had five members and from the Reunification of Germany in 1990, seven members. From 1963 to 1990, East Germany had the Altenburg Skat Court. Today the Internationale Skat Court has nine members of which seven are chosen from the German Skat Congress and two by ISPA. The president of the court from 2002 until 2014 was Peter Luczak. His successors is Hans Braun. In cases of dispute over the rules of Skat the participants may appeal to the Skat Court who, after hearing the case, make a binding decision.

Kerala High Court

The High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. It is located in Kochi. Drawing its powers under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, the High Court has the power to issue directions, orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for ensuring the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution to citizens for other specified purposes. The High Court is empowered with original, appellate and revisional jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal matters, and the power to answer references to it under some statutes. The High Court has the superintendence and visitorial jurisdiction over all courts and tribunals of inferior jurisdiction covered under its territorial jurisdiction. At present, the sanctioned Judge strength of the High Court of Kerala is 27 Permanent Judges including the Chief Justice and 20 Additional Judges. Depending on the importance and nature of the question to be adjudicated, the judges sit as Single one judge, Division two judges, Full three judges or such other benches of larger strengths. The foundation stone for the new multi-storied building now housing the High Court of Kerala was laid on 14 March 1994 by the then Chief Justice of India, Justice M. N. Venkatachaliah. The estimated cost of construction was 10 crore Indian rupees. The construction was completed in 2005 at a cost of 85 crore Indian rupees. The completed High Court building was inaugurated by the Chief Justice of India, Justice Y. K. Sabharwal on 11 February 2006. The new High Court building is equipped with modern amenities like videoconferencing, air conditioned courtrooms, internet, facilities for retrieval of order copies and publishing of the case status via the internet. The building is built on 5 acres 20.000 m 2 of land and has a built-up area of 550.000 square feet 51.000 m 2 over nine floors. The building has in it a post office, bank, medical clinic, library, canteens and such other most needed utilities and services. The High Court of Kerala has moved to its new building from the date of its inauguration, from the adjacent. Palace, where it had been functioning.