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51st state

51st state ", in post-1959 American political discourse, is a phrase that refers to areas or locales that are – seriously or facetiously – considered candidates for U.S. statehood, joining the 50 states that presently compose the United States. The phrase has been applied to external territories as well as parts of existing states which would be admitted as separate states in their own right. Voters in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have both voted for statehood in referendums. As statehood candidates, their admission to the Union requires congressional approval. American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands are also U.S. territories and could potentially become U.S. states. The phrase "51st state" sometimes has international political connotations not necessarily having to do with becoming a U.S. state. The phrase "51st state" can be used in a positive sense, meaning that a region or territory is so aligned, supportive, and conducive with the United States, that it is like a U.S. state. It can also be used in a pejorative sense, meaning an area or region is perceived to be under excessive American cultural or military influence or control. In various countries around the world, people who believe their local or national culture has become too Americanized sometimes use the term "51st state" in reference to their own countries. Before Alaska and Hawaii became states of the United States in 1959, the corresponding expression was "the 49th state".

Future developments in Singapore

A new mixed-use, integrated development will be built on the current Liang Court complex with a condominium, a mall, a Moxy hotel by Marriott replacing Novotel, and a Somerset serviced residence. Developed by CapitaLand, Ascott REIT and City Developments Limited, the redeveloped complex will open in phases from 2024.

Future enlargement of the European Union

There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the European Union: Turkey, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania, and Serbia. All except Albania and North Macedonia have started accession negotiations. Kosovo, whose independence is not recognised by five EU member states, and Bosnia and Herzegovina are recognised as potential candidates for membership by the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina has formally submitted an application for membership, while Kosovo has a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU, which generally precedes the lodging of membership application. Serbia and Montenegro, the most advanced candidates, are both expected to join no earlier than 2025. While the others are progressing, Turkish talks are at an effective standstill. The accession criteria are included in the Copenhagen criteria, agreed in 1993, and the Treaty of Maastricht Article 49. Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty as amended says that any "European state" that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the EU. Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions. Past enlargement since the foundation of the European Union EU as the European Economic Community by the Inner Six states in 1958 has brought total membership of the EU to twenty-seven. Of the four major western European countries that are not EU members, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland have submitted membership applications in the past but subsequently frozen them, while the United Kingdom is a former member. Currently, all four, along with Liechtenstein, participate in the EU Single Market. All but the UK also participate in the Schengen Area, which makes them closely aligned with the EU. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, and the European Parliament passed a resolution recognising the "European perspective" of all three countries.

List of future Interstate Highways

In the United States, future Interstate Highways include proposals to establish new mainline routes to the Interstate Highway System. Excluded from this article are three-digit auxiliary Interstate Highways in varying stages of planning and construction, and the planned expansion of existing primary Interstate Highways.

List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution

Hundreds of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution are introduced during each session of the United States Congress. From 1789 through January 3, 2017, approximately 11.699 measures have been proposed to amend the United States Constitution. Collectively, members of the House and Senate typically propose around 200 amendments during each two-year term of Congress. Most however, never get out of the Congressional committees in which they were proposed, and only a fraction of those that do receive enough support to win Congressional approval to actually go through the constitutional ratification process. Some proposed amendments are introduced over and over again in different sessions of Congress. It is also common for a number of identical resolutions to be offered on issues that have widespread public and congressional support. Since 1789, Congress has sent 33 constitutional amendments to the states for ratification. Of these, 27 have been ratified. The framers of the Constitution, recognizing the difference between regular legislation and constitutional matters, intended that it be difficult to change the Constitution; but not so difficult as to render it an inflexible instrument of government, as the amendment mechanism in the Articles of Confederation, which required a unanimous vote of thirteen states for ratification, had proven to be. Therefore, a less stringent process for amending the Constitution was established in Article V.

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