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Administrative law judge

An administrative law judge in the United States is a judge and trier of fact who both presides over trials and adjudicates the claims or disputes involving administrative law. ALJs can administer oaths, take testimony, rule on questions of evidence, and make factual and legal determinations. And depending upon the agencys jurisdiction, proceedings may have complex multi-party adjudication, as is the case with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or simplified and less formal procedures, as is the case with the Social Security Administration.

Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad

Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad was a term used in the Spanish colonies in the Americas during the times of the Spanish Empire. The term referred to judicial magistrates named in towns and villages within the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in the Americas whose function was primarily to be informed of infractions committed in rural areas against the established order, so they could be prosecuted. In this capacity, their primary function was to help the militia of a rural region within the jurisdiction of a cabildo. This militia was organized under an institution termed Santa Hermandad. The term of service of an Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad was one year. The position was eliminated around 1835, when the Santa Hermandad force itself was disestablished.

Arthur Hugh McShine

Arthur Hugh McShine was the second Chief Judge of Trinidad and Tobago from 1969 until 1970. He was earlier the acting Chief Judge of Trinidad and Tobago in 1961 till Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962.

Andrew Bell (judge)

Andrew Scott Bell is an Australian judge who is the current President of the New South Wales Court of Appeal. Bell is the son of economist Harold Bell and art historian Pamela Bell, and received his secondary education at Sydney Grammar School, where he captained the school cricket team. Bell was a medallist in Economic History and Law at the University of Sydney where he was a resident at St Pauls College and, in 1990, was a Rhodes Scholar. He graduated from Oxford and was awarded the Vinerian Scholarship for first place in the BCL. In 1990-1991, Bell was the Associate to the then Chief Justice of the High Court, Anthony Mason. It was there he met his wife, Joanna Bird, the Associate to Justice Michael McHugh. He was admitted as a barrister in 1995 and took silk in 2006. He was a Treasurer and then Senior Vice President of the New South Wales Bar Association. Bell was appointed as President of the NSW Court of Appeal on 28 February 2019.


Brehon is a term for a historical arbitration, mediative and judicial role in Gaelic culture. Brehons were part of the system of Early Irish law, which was also simply called "Brehon law". Brehons were judges, close in importance to the chiefs.

Chief justice

The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts/high courts. The situation is slightly different in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom. The courts of England and Wales are headed by the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales; in Northern Irelands courts, the equivalent position is the Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, and in the courts of Scotland the head of the judiciary of Scotland is the Lord President of the Court of Session, who is also Lord Justice General of Scotland. These three judges are not, though, part of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which operates across all three jurisdictions and is headed by the President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The chief justice can be selected in many ways, but, in many nations, the position is given to the most senior justice of the court, while, in the United States, it is often the Presidents most important political nomination, subject to approval by the United States Senate. Although the title of this top American jurist is, by statute, Chief Justice of the United States, the term "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court" is often used unofficially. In some courts, the chief justice has a different title, e.g. president of the supreme court. In other courts, the title of chief justice is used, but the court has a different name, e.g. the Supreme Court of Judicature in colonial British Ceylon, and the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia in the US state of West Virginia.