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Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization - individually: managers. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the Bachelor of Commerce B.Com. Bachelor of Business Administration BBA. Master of Business Administration MBA. Master in Management MScM or MIM and, for the public sector, the Master of Public Administration MPA degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management DM, the Doctor of Business Administration DBA, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. There has recently been a movement for evidence-based management. Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, which are typically organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Middle managers - examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Senior managers, such as members of a board of directors and a chief executive officer CEO or a president of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals, and provide direction to middle management, who directly or indirectly report to them. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.

Abusive supervision

Abusive supervision is most commonly studied in the context of the workplace, although can arise in other areas such as in the household and at school. "Abusive supervision has been investigated as an antecedent to negative subordinate workplace outcome." "Workplace violence has combination of situational and personal factors". The study that was conducted looked at the link between abusive supervision and different workplace events.

Action item

In management, an action item is a documented event, task, activity, or action that needs to take place. Action items are discrete units that can be handled by a single person.

Association management company

An association management company, or AMC, provides management and specialized administrative services to non-profit trade associations and professional associations using a for-profit approach. Many AMCs serve as an organizations headquarters, managing day-to-day operations and becoming the public face of the organization. Services may include executive, administrative and financial management; strategic planning; membership development; public affairs and lobbying; education and professional development; statistical research; meetings management; and marketing and communication services. Orienting board members is common; AMCs lay out expectations for fiduciary oversight and point out conflicts of interest. Fernley & Fernley, Inc., based in Philadelphia and founded in 1886, was the first association management company in the United States. More than 600 AMCs worldwide now collectively manage associations ranging in budget size from $50.000 to $16 million and representing more than 3 million members. AMCs can be found in most major U.S. cities. The Alexandria, Va based AMC Institute accredits AMCs under the guidance of the American National Standards Institute. Current employees of AMCs are eligible to apply to become a Certified Association Executive. Chicago-based SmithBucklin is the worlds largest AMC, although Geneva, Switzerland-based MCI Group, a professional conference organiser that offers AMC services, has more employees: 1.900 as of 2016.

Cognitive inertia

Cognitive inertia is the tendency for a particular orientation in how an individual thinks about an issue, belief or strategy to endure or resist change. The physics term inertia is to emphasize the rigidity and resistance to change in the method of cognitive processing the individual uses, especially after it has been in use for a significant amount of time. Commonly confused with belief perseverance, cognitive inertia is the perseverance of how one interprets information, not the perseverance of the belief itself. In clinical and neuroscientific literature cognitive inertia is often defined as a lack of motivation to generate cognitive specific processes to attend to a problem or issue. Cognitive inertia has been implicated in disregard of impending threat to ones health or environment, enduring political values and deficits in task switching. Interest in cognitive inertia was largely taken up by economic and industrial psychologists to explain resistance to change in brand loyalty, group brainstorming and business strategies.

Communities of innovation

Communities that support innovation have been referred to as communities of innovation, communities for innovation, innovation communities, open innovation communities, and communities of creation.