ⓘ Blog | Management - business ..

Completed staff work

Completed staff work is a principle of management which states that subordinates are responsible for submitting written recommendations to superiors in such a manner that the superior need do nothing further in the process than review the submitted document and indicate approval or disapproval. In Completed Staff Work, the subordinate is responsible for identifying the problem or issue requiring decision by some higher authority. In written form such as a memorandum, the subordinate documents the research done, the facts gathered, and analysis made of alternative courses of action. The memo concludes with a specific recommendation for action by the superior. The earliest description of the concept of Completed Staff Work appears in U.S. Army publications, although some sources indicate its origin to be a decade earlier from the Canadian Army. Since its early military origin, it has subsequently found favor in police management texts in the U.S. James Webb, Director of the Bureau of the Budget 1946-1949, attributes the Doctrine of Completed Staff Work to President Harry S. Truman. However, a memo written and circulated by Briagadier General George A. Rehm, executive officer for the G-3, Operations section, attributes the policy to General MacArthurs headquarters in the Southwest Pacific Areas during World War 2.

Contingency approach

Contingency approach, also known as situational approach, is a concept in management stating that there is no one universally applicable set of management principles to organizations. Organizations are individually different, face different situations, and require different ways of managing. Contingency approaches remain less common than change management

Control (management)

Control is a function of management which helps to check errors in order to take corrective actions. This is done to minimize deviation from standards and ensure that the stated goals of the organization are achieved in a desired manner. According to modern concepts, control is a foreseeing action; earlier concepts of control were only used when errors were detected. Control in management includes setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action the decision making.

Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation and include the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance is necessary because of the possibility of conflicts of interests between stakeholders, primarily between shareholders and upper management or among shareholders. Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. These include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate governance practices can be seen as attempts to align the interests of stakeholders. Interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, increased following the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations in 2001–2002, many of which involved accounting fraud; and then again after the recent financial crisis in 2008. Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include scandals surrounding Enron and MCI Inc. formerly WorldCom. Their demise led to the enactment of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act in 2002, a U.S. federal law intended to improve corporate governance in the United States. Comparable failures in Australia HIH, One.Tel are associated with the eventual passage of the CLERP 9 reforms there, that similarly aimed to improve corporate governance. Similar corporate failures in other countries stimulated increased regulatory interest e.g., Parmalat in Italy.

Court of assistants

A Court of Assistants is a council of members belonging to professional, trade, craft or livery organisations. The term originated among the London Livery companies, as certain senior members who manage the affairs of the City of London Companies, but may also be used by other trade associations. The Court of Assistants is usually the governing body of these organisations and may include the officials, as in the case of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers founded in 1631: "The governing body of the Company is the Court of Assistants, comprising the Master, three Wardens and not less than ten Assistants." Another example is the Honourable Artillery Company, which has an annual general court open to all members. It meets in March to elect 20 Assistants. The Company is governed in its civil and financial affairs by the court of assistants, which was first established in 1633.

Critical management studies

Critical management studies is a loose but extensive grouping of theoretically informed critiques of management, business and organisation, grounded originally in a critical theory perspective. Today it encompasses a wide range of perspectives that are critical of traditional theories of management and the business schools that generate these theories.

Customer benefit package

A customer benefit package forms part of the operations management toolkit. It involves a clearly defined set of tangible and intangible features that the customer recognizes, purchase or use. This can be the real or perceived value that a customer experiences or believes they are receiving through dealing with a company.

Decentralized decision-making

Decentralized decision-making is any process where the decision-making authority is distributed throughout a larger group. It also connotes a higher authority given to lower level functionaries, executives, and workers. This can be in any organization of any size, from a governmental authority to a corporation. However, the context in which the term is used is generally that of larger organizations. This distribution of power, in effect, has far-reaching implications for the fields of management, organizational behavior, and government. The decisions arising from a process of decentralized decision-making are the functional result of group intelligence and crowd wisdom. Decentralized decision-making also contributes to the core knowledge of group intelligence and crowd wisdom, often in a subconscious way la Carl Jungs collective unconscious. Decision theory is a method of deductive reasoning based on formal probability and deductive reasoning models. It is also studied in a specialized field of mathematics wherein models are used to help make decisions in all human activities including the sciences and engineering.

Delaying tactic

Delaying tactic is a deliberate action to guide decisions to achieve beneficial outcomes, by delaying a decision, or an occurrence. or by slowing it down to win an advantage. Many governments, and organizations are accused of applying such tactics, some examples of delaying tactics are: Overwhelming: The negotiator provides other parties with too much requests or information to overload them. Selective listening: The negotiator overlooks certain fragments of the other parties argument. Feather ruffling: The negotiator utilizes personal attack to divert the discussion to the involved parties instead of the results. Late objections: The negotiator makes an objection late in the negotiation, to set it back to square one. Logrolling: The negotiator concedes on low-priority items to them. Bogeyman: The negotiator introduces a false threat or warning. Active silence: The negotiator uses silence skillfully to induce a targeted discomfort in the other parties. Phasing: The negotiator offers to phase in or out the requested changes, buying themselves more time. Fragmentation: The negotiator breaks the discussion into minor discussions. Questioning goals: The negotiator debates the value of other parties ultimate goals. Bigger picture: The negotiator makes light of the proposed issue, and turns the focus to a wider discussion. Introducing a new issue: The negotiator introduces a new issue during the negotiation for distraction. Control the Agenda: The negotiator controls the agenda, and the priorities to control what is discussed and when. Divide and conquer: The negotiator creates an internal conflict between other parties who are opposed to them. Ellsberg paradox or also ambiguity aversion: The negotiator uses the human bias toward choosing the option that they know more about, despite of its real merits. Limited Authority, or Missing person tactic: The negotiator declares their limited ability to make a decision. Playing Dumb: The negotiator acts stupid to avoid confrontations. Bluff: The negotiator makes a false claim, as if he has better offers from other parties. Changing the Negotiator: The negotiator is changed to reset the progression made thus far. Empty Promises: The negotiator makes promises that they know they will not keep.


Delegation is the assignment of any authority to another person to carry out specific activities. It is one of the core concepts of management leadership. However, the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegated work. Delegation empowers a subordinate to make decisions, i.e. it is a shifting of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one. Delegation, if properly done, is not fabrication. The opposite of effective delegation is micromanagement, where a manager provides too much input, direction, and review of delegated work. In general, delegation is good and can save money and time, help in building skills, and motivate people. On the other hand, poor delegation might cause frustration and confusion to all the involved parties. Some agents, however, do not favour a delegation and consider the power of making a decision rather burdensome. According to Dr. Kanthi Wijesinghe, Senior Lecturer, National Institute of Education, Delegation begins when the manager passes on some of his responsibilities to the subordinate. Responsibility is the work assigned to an individual’. When assigning these responsibilities to other individuals, these individuals must be willing and ready to be delegated to as well. The delegated readiness of the individuals is an important factor in determining the success of the delegation. Individuals must be prepared for delegation. Delegation in IT network is also an evolving field.