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January 1915

The Yōrō Railway extended the Yōrō Line in the Gifu Prefecture, Japan, with stations Karasue serving the line. As well, the Iksan Station was opened on the original Honam rail line in Iksan, Korea. The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable was sunk off Lyme Regis, Dorset, England, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat with the loss of 547 crew. The Royal Flying Corps established the No. 8 Squadron at Saint-Omer, France and the No. 10 Squadron at Farnborough Airport, Farnborough, Hampshire, England. The railway station in Whitstable, England was closed as a wartime measure. Born: Branko Copic, Bosnian writer, known for such works as Eagles Fly Early, in Hasani, Bosnia d. 1984, by suicide Harry Houdini performed a straitjacket escape performance. The Tennōji Zoo opened to the public in Tennōji-ku, Osaka, Japan. The municipality of Edoy, Norway was split up three ways to allow the creation of the municipalities of Brattvær and Hopen. All three were reunited again in 1960 as the municipality of Smola. Luis Cabrera Lobato, aide to Mexican president Venustiano Carranza, released a decree on land reform in Mexico, promising to provide land to those with the most need. The Panama–California Exposition officially opened in San Diego with U.S. President Woodrow Wilson ceremoniously pushing a telegraph button in Washington, D.C. that turned on the power and lights at the park. The exposition, which celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal, would host 3.7 million visitors over the next two years. The Sacramento Northern Railway opened the Dixon Branch rail line opened between Sacramento and Dixon, California. The sports alliance club Kristiania BK was founded through a merger of three separate clubs to provide association football, Nordic skiing, and bandy to Kristiania, Norway. The club took on another club in 1925 to becoming Skeid, but still retained many of the club colors established in 1915. Pilot Vivian Walsh flew a Curtiss-type flying boat at Bastion Point, New Zealand, the first time such an aircraft was flown in the Southern Hemisphere. Battle of Broken Hill - A train ambush near Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, was carried out by Mullah Abdullah and Gool Badsha Mahomed claiming to be in support of the Ottoman Empire who were killed together with four civilians. Toronto held a municipal election with Thomas Langton Church defeating Jesse McCarthy after incumbent mayor Horatio Clarence Hocken chose not to run. Church received over 26.000 votes while McCarthy had over 19.500. The II Corps of the Imperial German Army was disbanded when its headquarters was upgraded to become part of the South Army on the Eastern Front. The Arkansas State Capitol was completed to house the Arkansas General Assembly in Little Rock, Arkansas. Charles Seymour Whitman became the 41st Governor of New York which he would serve until 1918. The Mumbai Port Trust Railway opened for public use, becoming a critical railroad of the Allies during World War II. The Ilford rail crash in Essex, England killed ten people and injured another 500 passengers.

February 1915

The womens private school Auckland Presbyterian College for Ladies was established in Auckland but was renamed soon after by the schools first principal Isobel Macdonald to St Cuthberts College William Fox established film studio Fox Film, a precursor to 20th Century Fox, in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The film studio had its own film laboratory named De Luxe, which was sold in the 1930s and developed to become Deluxe Entertainment Services Group. Raid on the Suez Canal - An Ottoman force of over 13.000 laid siege to the Suez Canal. The Royal Flying Corps established No. 17 Squadron for service in the Middle East. Born: Stanley Matthews, English association football player, forward for England national football team from 1934 to 1957, and Stoke City and Blackpool from 1932 to 1965, in Hanley, Staffordshire, England d. 2000; Alicia Rhett, American actress and painter, best known for her role as India Wilkes in Gone with the Wind, in Savannah, Georgia d. 2014 The 57th Infantry Regiment for the Ottoman Empire was established, and would be known for making an incredible sacrifice during the Gallipoli campaign four months later. Irish writer Helen Waddells first play, The Spoiled Buddha, premiered at the Opera House, Belfast, by the Ulster Literary Society. Photographs were required in British passports for the first time. The Great Western Railway closed rail stations Old Oak Lane, Park Royal, and Perivale in London.

March 1915

The Imperial Russian Navys Black Sea Fleet began seaplane carrier raids against the Bosporus and the Ottoman Empires European Black Sea coast. The raids, which continue until May, were historys first in which battleships play a subsidiary role while operating with aviation ships, foreshadowing the aircraft carrier-battleship task forces of World War II. The Old Wan Chai Post Office opened on Queens Road East in Hong Kong, and remains the oldest surviving post office in the city. It was declared a Hong Kong monument in 1990. The Institute of Arbitrators was established in London later renamed Chartered Institute of Arbitrators to represent the interests of alternative dispute resolution ADR practitioners. The organization presently has 14.000 members in 130 countries. The 11th, 12th, and 13th Light Horse Regiments of the First Australian Imperial Force were established to serve at the upcoming Gallipoli campaign. The Royal Flying Corps established the No. 15 Squadron at Farnborough Airport, Farnborough, Hampshire, England as a training unit under command of Philip Joubert de la Ferte. A virulent locust infestation broke out in Palestine and would continue until October. John Martin Poyer relieved Lieutenant Charles Armijo Woodruff to become the 12th naval governor of the American Samoa. The Fuji Minobu Railway extended the Minobu Line in the Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan with station Shibakawa serving the line.

April 1915

French fighter pilot Lieutenant Roland Garros scored the first kill achieved by firing a machine gun through a tractor propeller of an enemy observation plane. Garros would score two more victories in this way later in the month. Baldwin Locomotive Works delivered the first of 280 Pechot-Bourdon locomotives for the French trench railways on the Western Front. The Museum of Oltenia was established in Craiova, Romania. The Majestic Theater opened in Detroit. Designed by architect C. Howard Crane, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. The New Zealand Army Ordnance Section of the New Zealand Army was established. The Australian Flying Corps established a squadron to provide aerial support for ground troops in the Mesopotamian campaign. Born: R. B. Freeman, British biologist and historian, known for compiling complete manuscript records of Charles Darwin and Philip Henry Gosse, in London d. 1986; Walter Fricke, German mathematician and astronomer, director of the Astronomical Calculation Institute from 1954 to 1985, recipient of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, in Merseburg, Germany d. 1988 The 123rd Infantry Division of the Imperial German Army was established as part of new wave of German infantry division formed in spring 1915. The Kokura Railway extended the Hitahikosan Line in the Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, with stations Ishida serving the line. As well, the Tojo Railway extended the Tōbu Tōjō Line in the Saitama Prefecture with stations Kawagoe serving the line. The 29th, 30th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 35th, 37th, and 39th Infantry Divisions of the British Army were established. In a Morane-Saulnier airplane, French fighter pilot Jean Navarre and his observer/gunner Jean Robert attacked a German Aviatik over Merval, France. Robert used a carbine to damage the enemy plane and wound the pilot, forcing him to land behind French lines and surrender. It is Navarres first victory and would set him on course to becoming a flying ace. Born: Arthur C. Lundahl, American intelligence officer, chief organizer of the imagery intelligence that detected missiles being built in Cuba in 1962, in Chicago d. 1992; Jeff Heath, Canadian-American baseball player, left fielder for the Cleveland Indians, St. Louis Browns and Boston Braves from 1936 to 1949, in Fort William, Ontario d. 1975

May 1915

American tanker Gulflight was torpedoed and damaged in the Atlantic Ocean 20 nautical miles 37 km west of the Isles of Scilly by German submarine SM U-30 with the loss of three crew, becoming the first American ship to be attacked in World War I. Frances Cornfords Spring Morning, the first modern book illustrated with wood engravings by the poets cousin Gwen Raverat, was published by The Poetry Bookshop in London. British destroyer HMS Recruit was torpedoed and sunk in the North Sea by German submarine SM UB-6 with the loss of 34 of her crew. The sports club Strong was established in Oslo for hockey, and became one of the founding members of GET-ligaen, the premier Norwegian hockey league. It merged with two other clubs in 1952 to become Gruner. Battle of Hill 60 – German forces launched a series of gas attacks to retake the strategic hill on the Western Front from the British. Japanese chemical manufacturer Denka was established in Tokyo. Ambrose Heal and others founded the Design and Industries Association in London. Royal Navy destroyers protecting naval trawlers fought off German torpedo boats at Noordhinder Bank in south part of the North Sea, resulting in both torpedo boats being sunk with 13 German sailors killed and another 46 captured. Sixteen British sailors were lost in the attack. Gorlice–Tarnow Offensive – Combined German and Austro-Hungarian forces under command of General August von Mackensen bombarded and attacked trenches held by the Russian Third Army along the Dunajec river in Galicia now Poland, expending 70.000 shells over four hours before troops assaulted the trenches. British ocean liner RMS Lusitania departed Pier 54 in New York City on a return voyage back to Liverpool with 1.959 passengers and crew on board. Born: Michael Dillon, British physician, first trans man to undergo phalloplasty d. 1962; Hoàng Van Thai, Vietnamese army officer, first General Staff of the Vietnam Peoples Army, in Tiền Hải District, Vietnam d. 1986; Archie Williams, American runner, gold medalist at the 1936 Summer Olympics, in Oakland, California d. 1993 Battle of Eski Hissarlik – Ottoman forces counter-attacked during the night in an attempt to push Allied forces off their beachhead at Cape Helles during the Gallipoli campaign. However, Allied defenses were strong and well-prepared for night attacks and the Ottoman forces were repelled. Rail stations Bradley and Moxley and Milton Road were closed as part of wartime measures in England. The British War Office issued instructions specifying the aircraft and armament Royal Flying Corps squadrons were to have ready for defense of Great Britain against German airships, including having aircraft ready for immediate takeoff at all times, with a specific mix of weapons including bombs, grenades, and incendiary darts. The association football club Silvolde was established through a merger of two separate clubs in Silvolde, Netherlands. Zaian War – French colonial forces crossed the Rbia River north of Khenifra, Morocco to cut of food supplies reserved for the rebelling Zayanes. During the campaign, a French convoy was attacked by 5.000 tribesmen, but were repulsed with 300 killed and 400 wounded over a two-day battle. The battle lead to six months of relative calm in the region. The first part of the Mandra–Bhaun Railway opened in British India now Pakistan, connecting Mandra with Bhaun. Candy store chain Haighs Chocolates was established when Alfred E. Haigh opened a chocolate store in Adelaide, Australia. The shop became a chaing starting in the 1950s. The Barry Railway Company opened a rail station in Llandow, Wales to serve the South Wales line. It closed in 1964. French submarine Joule struck a mine and sank in the Dardanelles with the loss of all 31 of her crew.

June 1915

The Sunset Beach Hotel opened in Glenwood Township, Pope County, Minnesota. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. British light cruiser HMS Arethusa encountered a German airship on the North Sea and quickly launched a Sopwith seaplane to intercept. However, the pilot mistook smoke from British destroyers as a recall signal and abandoned the chase, ending one of the most promising early opportunities for the interception of an airship by a shipborne aircraft. Gorlice–Tarnow Offensive - German infantry occupied three large forts around Przemysl after a Russian counterattack failed. The United States Department of the Navy awarded its first contract for an airship to the Connecticut Aircraft Company. The second part of the Mandra–Bhaun Railway opened in British India now Pakistan, connecting Mandra with Bhaun. The 107th Infantry Division of the Imperial German Army was established. Shinano Railway extended the Ōito Line in the Nagano Prefecture, Japan, with station Hakuyachō serving the line. As well, the Geibi Railway extended the Geibi Line in the Okayama Prefecture, Japan, with station Miyoshi serving the line. British destroyer HMS Mohawk struck a mine and was damaged in the English Channel with the loss of five of her crew.